Navigation Type Descriptions
|ACOUSTIC_RANGING/GPS||Acoustic ranging from a GPS-navigated ship to identify the location of instrumentation on the seafloor.|
|DVL||Doppler Velocity Log|
|DVL/LBL||Real-time DVL dead-reckoning navigation supplemented with LBL navigation to help constrain fixes to a geographic coordinate system. Errors on the order of 10s (sometimes 100s) of meters are likely in these data.|
|DVL/LBL/INS||Real-time DVL dead-reckoning navigation supplemented with LBL navigation and INS (Inertial Navigation System) navigation.|
|DVL/LBL:Renav||Post-processed to merge DVL with LBL navigation. When combined with LBL navigation, precision depth measurements, and gyrocompass attitude data, DVL navigation can result in vehicle positioning accuracy ranging from <1 meter to 10s of meters depending on deployment geometry and conditions, and the nature of the post-processing [Kinsey and Whitcomb, 2004, 2006; Ferrini et al., 2005; Kinsey et al., 2006; Ferrini et al., 2007]. **Note that sample position information derived from this navigation product MUST be manually verified (e.g. with bottom photos) to ensure the success of navigational post-processing.**|
|DVL/LBL:Renav:Confirmed||Indicates that the DVL/LBL:Renav positions have been confirmed by human inspection.|
|DVL:Renav||DVL data post-processed to remove obvious errors in Doppler position data. Errors on the order of 10s of meters are likely to exist in these data and are due to the limitations of dead-reckoning navigation with DVL sonars. Users should refer to bottom photos to verify positioning information.|
|DVL:Renav:Confirmed||Indicates that the DVL:Renav positions have been confirmed by human inspection.|
|DVL/USBL||Real-time DVL dead-reckoning navigation supplemented with USBL.|
|DVL/USBL:Renav||Post-processed to merge Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) with Ultra-Short BaseLine (USBL) navigation.|
|GLONASS||Global Navigation Satellite System|
|GPS||Global Positioning System|
|GPS:Assumed||GPS was available and has been assumed to be the source of navigational information.|
|GPS/WireOut||Ship navigated with GPS, but instrument launched on a wire. Typically, a layback calculation is done to determine the precise instrument location.|
|LAYBACK||Layback navigation is typically calculated based on (1) the ship's GPS coordinates, (2) the amount of wire out to the towed platform, (3) the water depth of the platform (if available).|
|LAYBACK/LBL||Layback navigation supplemented with LBL|
|LAYBACK:Renav||LAYBACK navigation was used, but repositioning was done during post-processing, typically based on feature-matching.|
|LBL||Real-time Long BaseLine navigation [Hunt et al., 1974; Milne, 1983]. Utilizes travel times from acoustic transponders deployed near the seafloor to calculate positional information. Motion of the transponders, which are typically deployed on long tethers (up to 600 m in high relief terrain), result in motion of the reference frame, introducting positioning uncertainties on the order of meters.|
|LBL:Renav||Cleaned Long BaseLine (LBL) navigation data.|
|Locale||Position substituted from neighboring physiographic feature or deployed instrument.|
|LORAN||LOng RAnge Navigation|
|NotApplicable||Navigational information is not available.|
|NotProvided||Navigational information was not provided.|
|RTK GPS||Real-Time Kinematic GPS|
References:Ferrini, V.L., L. Whitcomb, J. Howland, D. Fornari, S.M. Carbotte, D. Kelley, T. Shank, M. Tivey, (2005). Navigation of UNOLS National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) Vehicles: Status Report and Guidelines for Data Acquisition. Ridge 2000 Community Progress and Planning Workshop, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
Ferrini, V.L., D.J. Fornari, T.M. Shank, J.C. Kinsey, M.A. Tivey, S.A. Soule, S.M. Carbotte, L. L. Whitcomb, D. Yoerger, and J. Howland (2007). Submeter bathymetric mapping of volcanic and hydrothermal features on
the East Pacific Rise crest at 9°50'N, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q01006, doi:10.1029/2006GC001333.
Hunt, M. M., W. M. Marquet, D. A. Moller, K. R. Peal, W. K. Smith, and R. C. Spindell (1974), An acoustic navigation system, WHOI Tech. Rep. WHOI-74-6, Woods Hole Oceanogr. Inst., Woods Hole, Mass.
Kinsey, J. C., and L. L. Whitcomb (2002), Towards in-situ calibration of Gyro and Doppler Navigation sensors for precision underwater vehicle navigation, paper presented at the 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Arlington, Va.
Kinsey, J.C., L.L. Whitcomb, D.R. Yoerger, J.C. Howland, V.L. Ferrini, O. Hegrenas, (2006). New Navigation Post-Processing Tools for Oceanographic Submersibles. Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS33A-1678.
Kinsey, J. C., and L. L. Whitcomb (2004), Preliminary field experience with the DVLNAV integrated navigation system for oceanographic submersibles, Control Eng. Pract., 12, 1541-1549.
Kinsey, J. C., and L. L. Whitcomb (2006), In-situ alignment calibration of attitude and Doppler sensors for precision underwater vehicle navigation: Theory and experiment, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., in press.
Milne, P. H. (1983), Underwater Acoustic Positioning Systems. Gulf Publ., Houston, Tex.
Whitcomb, L., D. R. Yoerger, and H. Singh (1999a), Combined Doppler/LBL based navigation of underwater vehicles, paper presented at the 11th International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology, Autonomous Undersea Syst. Inst., Durham, N. H.
Whitcomb, L. L., D. R. Yoerger, and H. Singh (1999b), Advances in Doppler-based navigation of underwater robotic vehicles, paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Detroit, Mich.